Affichage des articles dont le libellé est Géologie. Afficher tous les articles
Affichage des articles dont le libellé est Géologie. Afficher tous les articles

vendredi 27 juillet 2012

Geology -- Géologie -- جـيـولـوجـيـا

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1- Softwares

To be continued     يتبع

 2- The Fuzzy Rock Mass Classification System


 1- The MINEX Mineral Catalogue



To be continued

2- Earth Structure

1- Hazards

1- Orphan Tsunami


         This simplified animation illustrates both the subduction-zone processes that lead to a "ghost forest" as well as the evidence that scientists collected to determine that the Pacific Northwest has had many great earthquakes and tsunamis in the past, and will again in the future. This is based on the work of Brian Atwater who published his findings in the book "The Orphan Tsunami of 1700" (USGS Professional Paper 1707).

Size: 19.7 MB


2- How will 3 buildings, engineered equally, on different bedrock react to an earthquake?

        Three buildings of different subsurface react differently to seismic waves. One important geologic factor that affects the level of ground shaking experienced from an earthquake is the presence of solid bedrock versus soft sediment. Soft soils amplify ground shaking. An example from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are included.

2-1 Ampification and liquefaction of buildings on different bedrock


      Highly generalized animation reflects the arrivals of P, S, and surface waves to 3 closely spaced buildings. Exaggerated movement of the buildings reflects the relative motion recorded by the seismograms. The 4th building on the beach shows the effect of liquefaction of underlying sediment. Animation ends with actual seismograms from buildings on solid bedrock and sediment fill equal distance from the 1989 Loma Prieta M7 earthquake. Original music by Jesse Gay, Portland OR.

Size: 5.88 MB


2-2 Liquefaction and sinking building


      Cutaway animation of how liquefaction of compacted sediment in the San Francisco area led to the tilting of houses during the 1906 earthquake. Tilted Victorian home at Howard and 17th Streets in the Mission District of San Francisco showing liquefaction-related damage from the 1906 earthquake. This area is underlain by marsh deposits that were covered by artificial fill in the middle to late 1800s. The earthquake shaking caused the artificial fill to liquefy and lose its ability to support the house.(Photograph by G.K. Gilbert of the U.S. Geological Survey; description from USGS).

Size: 3.27 MB


2-3 Sand Boil Forms during 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake


    Sand Boil—sand-laden water can be ejected from a buried liquefied layer and erupt at the surface to form sand volcanoes; the surrounding ground often fractures and settles. Definition & photo from USGS.

Size: 2.47 MB


***Sand Blows and the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-1812

Size: 272 Ko



3- Books

To be continued     يتبع

5- Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, 3rd edition
 By George H. Davis. Stephen J. Reynolds . Charles F . Kluth

  | 2011 | ISBN: 0471152315 | 839 pages | PDF | 87.06 MB


4- Metals and Society: An Introduction to Economic Geology 

By Nicholas Arndt, Clement Ganino


 2012 | 173 Pages | ISBN: 3642229956 | PDF | 5 MB






   Economic Geology focuses not only on the nature and origin of ore deposits but also explores the economic issues that surround the exploitation of mineral resources. Topics of particular focus are the rate of exploitation of natural resources, the question of when or if these resources will be exhausted, the pollution and social disturbance that accompanies mining, the compromises and challenges that arise from the explosion of demand from China, India and other rapidly developing countries, and the moral issues that surround mining of metals in lesser developed countries for consumption in the "first-world" countries. With its dual character, the book is useful as an introductory text for students in earth sciences and a reference volume for students, teachers and researchers of geography, economics and social sciences.



3- Seismic attenuation tomography of the Mariana subduction system: Implications for thermal structure, volatile distribution, and slow spreading dynamics


2- Upper mantle seismic anisotropy of the South Victoria Land and Ross Sea coast, Antarctica from SKS and SKKS splitting analysis


1- Soil and geology procedure for foundation design building
       civil engineering, geology
               File : 3.37 MB, 204 pages